Issues of the 21st century are complex due to their interrelations and interdependencies and the challenges in the foreseeable future are believed to be similar or worse, putting multi-disciplinary approach on the spotlight. The sustainability of solutions put forward to tackle current issues or better prepare for anticipated future challenges depends on their capacity to facilitates social and economic upliftment while ensuring environmental protection. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify the social, economic and environmental impacts of the problem as well as the vulnerabilities imposed on them and design solutions that could negate or ideally reverse such impacts and vulnerabilities. Some major issues are globally common and highly sensitive, such as those relating to water, food and energy securities, thus proposals of mitigation and adaptation mechanisms related to those can create public chaos and controversy. This highlights the significance of incorporating multi-stakeholder perspectives in designing an inclusive final solution.

Such factors, but not limited to them, are what makes the issues of our time complex and demanding a cross-disciplinary approach in related scientific research. Scientists/engineers may find the ideal solution, but the ideal is subjective. What is required is to make this ideal solution, the feasible and optimum one with least compromises and creating a win-win situation for all involved parties. Thus, a scientific research team should include expertise knowledge spanning across disciplines such as humanities, social sciences, gender etc. in developing insightful coping mechanisms. This also creates the opportunity to value other individual disciplines by recognizing their indispensable input. Such multidisciplinary teams have the capacity to develop sustainable responsive mechanisms for the issues of the 21st century, enabling meaningful action to make a positive change on the ground.